In the ageing population of European society, there are high expectations for better quality of life, for which an important factor is improved, more efficient and affordable health care. Society is confronted with severe illnesses such as cardiovascular problems, diabetes, cancer, and inflammatory and infectious diseases. Focussed on these medical problems, nanotechnology offers impressive solutions. The use of NPs for early diagnosis, imaging and ‘smart’ drug delivery systems (“Nanocargo”) ensures better and personalized health care. The nanoHealth project aimed to develop new generations of NPs for diagnosis, imaging and drug delivery.